migration C#, Java, C++ (day 11), future and promise

There is hardly anything directly to compare with in C#. Future and promise are C++ concepts, which are probably best compared to C# task concepts. The comparison was not easy today. Have a look at the outcome.

Wiki

future and promise

using System;
using System.Threading;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

namespace Program {
    public class Day11 {

        private class Params {
            public int Input;
            public int Result;
        }

        private void DoSomething() {
            Console.WriteLine("DoSomething()");
            Thread.Sleep(4000);
        }  //     

        private void Method1(object xObject) {
            Params lParams = xObject as Params;
            Console.WriteLine("Method1");
            Thread.Sleep(2000);
            lParams.Result = 2 * lParams.Input;
        } //

        private int Method2(int xInt1) {
            Console.WriteLine("Method2");
            Thread.Sleep(2000);
            return 2 * xInt1;
        } //

        private async Task<int> Method3(int xInt1) {
            await Task.Delay(0);
            Console.WriteLine("Method3");
            return 2 * xInt1;
        } //

        private void Method4(Params xParams, AutoResetEvent xEvent) {
            Console.WriteLine("Method4");
            Thread.Sleep(2000);
            xEvent.WaitOne();
            xParams.Result = 2 * xParams.Input;
        } //


        static void Main(string[] args) {
            Day11 lDay10 = new Day11();
            lDay10.test();
        } //

        public async void test() {
            int i;

            // use a thread to get an asynchronous result
            ParameterizedThreadStart lParams = new ParameterizedThreadStart(Method1);
            Thread thread1 = new Thread(lParams);
            Params p = new Params() { Input = 123 };
            thread1.Start(p);
            Console.WriteLine("Method1.join()");
            thread1.Join();
            Console.WriteLine("Method1 result is: " + p.Result);

            Func<int, int> t1 = new Func<int, int>(x => { return Method2(x); });
            i = t1(123); // synchronous
            IAsyncResult lResult = t1.BeginInvoke(123, null, null); // asynchronously
            lResult.AsyncWaitHandle.WaitOne();

            i = await Method3(123);
            Console.WriteLine("Method3 result is: " + i);

            p.Input = 123;
            p.Result = 0;
            AutoResetEvent lEvent = new AutoResetEvent(false);
            Task t2 = new Task(() => Method4(p, lEvent));
            t2.Start();
            lEvent.Set();
            t2.Wait();
            Console.WriteLine("Method4 result is: " + p.Result);

            Console.ReadLine();
        } //

    } // class
} // namespace

example output:
Method1.join()
Method1
Method1 result is: 246
Method2
Method2
Method3
Method3 result is: 246
Method4
Method4 result is: 246

#include <future>
#include <iostream>
#include <thread>

using namespace std;

void DoSomething() {
  cout << "DoSomething()" << endl;
  this_thread::sleep_for(chrono::seconds(4));
}  //

void Thread1(int xInt1, int &xInt2) {
  cout << "Thread1" << endl;
  this_thread::sleep_for(chrono::seconds(2));
  xInt2 = 2 * xInt1;
} //

int Thread2(int xInt1) {
  cout << "Thread2" << endl;
  this_thread::sleep_for(chrono::seconds(2));
  return 2 * xInt1;
} //

int Thread3(future<int> &xInt1) {
  cout << "Thread3" << endl;
  this_thread::sleep_for(chrono::seconds(2));
  return 2 * xInt1.get(); // .get() => waits until the promise is fullfilled
} //

int Thread4(shared_future<int> xInt1) {
  cout << "Thread4" << endl;
  this_thread::sleep_for(chrono::seconds(2));
  return 2 * xInt1.get(); // returns the same value to all waiting futures
} //

void test(){
  int i;

  // use a thread to get an asynchronous result
  thread t1(Thread1, 123, ref(i));
  cout << "Thread1.join()" << endl;
  t1.join();
  cout << "Thread1 result is: " << i << endl;

  // like a task, may be synchronous or asychronous  
  future<int> f1 = async(Thread2, 123);
  cout << "Thread2, f1.get()" << endl;
  i = f1.get(); // waits

  // like a synchronous task, which is running on the same thread
  // will be called when you get the value
  future<int> f2 = async(launch::deferred, Thread2, 123); 
  cout << "Thread2, f2.get()" << endl; 
  i = f2.get(); // waits
  cout << "Thread2 deferred result is: " << i << endl;

  // like an asynchronous task, which is running on a new thread
  future<int> f3 = async(launch::async, Thread2, 123); 
  cout << "Thread2, f3.get()" << endl; 
  i = f3.get(); // waits
  cout << "Thread2 async result is: " << i << endl;

  // same as f1, because this is the default value; the system decides what to do
  future<int> f4 = async(launch::async | launch::deferred, Thread2, 123);
  i = f4.get(); // waits

  promise<int> lPromise5; // promise to provide a value at a later time  
  future<int> f5 = lPromise5.get_future();
  future<int> f5b = async(launch::async, Thread3, ref(f5));
  DoSomething();
  cout << "lPromise5.set_value()" << endl;
  lPromise5.set_value(123); // fulfill our promise now
  cout << "f5b async result is: " << f5b.get() << endl;

  promise<int> lPromise6; // promise to provide a value at a later time
  future<int> f6 = lPromise6.get_future();
  DoSomething();
  // tell the parallel thread to stop waiting for the promise fulfillment
  lPromise6.set_exception(make_exception_ptr(runtime_error("sorry, I cannot fulfill my promise")));  

  //
  // SOME PRACTICAL ISSUES
  //
  promise<int> lPromise7; // promise to provide a value at a later time
  future<int> f7 = lPromise7.get_future();
  promise<int> lPromise8 = move(lPromise7); // you cannot assign a promise, you have to move it
  future<int> f8 = move(f7); // same with the future    

  // you cannot call future.get() more than once
  // to allow multiple consumers use:
  shared_future<int> f9 = f8.share();
  future<int> f10 = async(launch::async, Thread4, f9);
  future<int> f11 = async(launch::async, Thread4, f9);
  future<int> f12 = async(launch::async, Thread4, f9);
  future<int> f13 = async(launch::async, Thread4, f9);
  lPromise8.set_value(123);
  cout << "f10: " << f10.get() << ", f11:" << f11.get() << ", f12:" << f12.get() << ", f13:" << f13.get() << endl;

  // packaged_task
  auto t2 = bind(Thread2, 123);
  t2(); // synchronous

  packaged_task<int()> t3(bind(Thread2, 123)); // wrapper to make async calls
  t3(); // call the task  in a different context
  future<int> f14 = t3.get_future(); // getting a future is not possible with t2 
  int x = f14.get();
  cout << "f14: " << x << endl;

  cin.get();
} //

example output:
Thread1.join()
Thread1

Thread1 result is: 246
Thread2, f1.get()
Thread2

Thread2, f2.get()
Thread2
Thread2 deferred result is: 246
Thread2, f3.get()
Thread2

Thread2 async result is: 246
Thread2
DoSomething()
Thread3

lPromise5.set_value()
f5b async result is: 246
DoSomething()
Thread4
Thread4

Thread4
Thread4
f10: 246, f11:246, f12:246, f13:246
Thread2
Thread2
f14: 246

package Program;

import java.util.*;
import java.util.concurrent.Callable;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutionException;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutorService;
import java.util.concurrent.Executors;
import java.util.concurrent.Future;

public class Day11 {

  private static void Sleep(int xMilliseconds) {
    try {
      Thread.sleep(xMilliseconds);
    } catch (InterruptedException ex) {
      System.err.println(ex.getMessage());
    }
  } //

  private class Thread1 extends Thread {

    public int Input;
    public int Result;

    @Override
    public void run() {
      System.out.println("Thread1");
      Sleep(2000);
      Result = 2 * Input;
    } //
  } // class

  private class Thread2 {

    private final ExecutorService pool = Executors.newFixedThreadPool(5);

    public Future<Integer> getPromise(final int xInt1) {
      return pool.submit(() -> {
        System.out.println("Thread2");
        Sleep(2000);
        return 2 * xInt1;
      });
    } //
  } // class

  private class Thread3 implements Callable<Integer> {

    private final ExecutorService _Pool = Executors.newFixedThreadPool(5);
    private int _Int1;

    public Future<Integer> getPromise(final int xInt1) {
      _Int1 = xInt1;
      return _Pool.submit(this);
    } //

    @Override
    public Integer call() throws Exception {
      synchronized (this) {
        this.wait();
      }
      System.out.println("Thread3");
      Sleep(2000);
      return 2 * _Int1;
    } //
  } // class

  public final void test() throws InterruptedException, ExecutionException {

    // use a thread to get an asynchronous result    
    Thread1 t1 = new Thread1();
    t1.Input = 123;
    t1.start();
    System.out.println("Thread1.join()");
    t1.join();
    System.out.println("Thread1 result is: " + t1.Result);

    // like a task, may be synchronous or asychronous 
    Thread2 t2 = new Thread2();
    Future<Integer> f1 = t2.getPromise(123);
    System.out.println("Thread2, f1.getPromise(123)");
    int i = f1.get(); // waits   
    System.out.println("f1 result is: " + i);

    // deferred
    Thread3 t3 = new Thread3();
    Future<Integer> f2 = t3.getPromise(123);
    synchronized (t3) {
      t3.notify(); // start calculation manually    
    }
    System.out.println("Thread3 result is: " + f2.get()); // wait

    new Scanner(System.in).nextLine();
  } //

  public static void main(String[] args) throws InterruptedException, ExecutionException {
    Day11 lDay11 = new Day11();
    lDay11.test();
  } //

} // class

example output:
Thread1
Thread1.join()
Thread1 result is: 246
Thread2
Thread2, f1.getPromise(123)
f1 result is: 246
Thread3
Thread3 result is: 246

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About Bastian M.K. Ohta

Happiness only real when shared.

Posted on March 17, 2014, in Basic, C#, C++, Java, Threading and tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink. Leave a comment.

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